Thursday, 20 May 2010

Ofcom website on tacking illegal broadcasting.

Ofcom Raid On London Pirate Radio Station 2009 - TOWERBLOCKRADIO.COM

Identifying "The Long Tail" - Chris Anderson

Broadcasting act of 1990

Effects of the Act

An effect of this Act was that, in the letter of the law, the television or radio companies rather than the regulator became the broadcasters, as had been the case in the early (1955-1964) era of the Independent television authority when it had fewer regulatory powers than it would later assume.

In television
In television, the Act allowed for the creation of a fifth analogue terrestrial television channel in the UK, which turned out to be Channel 5, now renamed Five, and the growth of multichannel satellite television. It also stipulated that the BBC, which had traditionally produced the vast majority of its television programming in-house, was now obliged to source at least 25% of its output from independent production companies.
The act has sometimes been described, both as praise and as criticism, as a key enabling force for Rupert Murdoch's ambitions in Britain. It reformed the system of awarding ITV franchises, which would prove controversial when Thames Television was replaced by Carlton Television, for what some felt were political reasons (see Death on the Rock), and when TV-am, admired by Mrs Thatcher for its management's defiance of the trade unions, lost its franchise to GMTV (the then former Prime Minister personally apologised to the senior TV-am executive Bruce Gyngell). It also allowed for companies holding ITV franchises to take over other such companies from 1994, beginning the process which has led to the creation of ITV plc.

In radio
In radio, it allowed for the launch of three Independent National Radio stations, two of them on mediumwave using frequencies formerly used by the BBC, and the other on FM using frequencies formerly used by the emergency services. It set out plans for many more local and regional commercial radio stations, generally using parts of the FM band not previously used for broadcasting, which have since come to fruition. Its plans for expanding community radio would only really be developed in the 2000s.

Pirate Radio stations.

UK Pirate Radio Stations
Offshore stations
Radio Caroline North · Radio Caroline South · Radio 270 · Wonderful Radio London · Radio Atlanta · Swinging Radio England · Radio Scotland · Radio City · Radio 390 · Radio North Sea International
Land based stations
Don FM · Dread Broadcasting Corporation · Dream FM · Kool FM · Radio Free Scotland · Rinse FM · Thameside Radio
Former pirate radio stations (Now licensed)
Kiss 100 London- XFM - Voice of Africa Radio - Sunrise Radio - KFM - Raidió Fáilte - Radio Avalon - UKC Radio - Sunshine 855 · Radio Jackie

Changing ways to listen to the music industry.

When talking to my family the other day they were speaking about recording the radio onto tapes. How a sunday night chart show they would have to be silent so they could pick up the music. Then going to by there first vinyl. Leading up to us, the kids, buying our first cd and what was it. I think everyone can remember what was there first single they bought and it is sad that the younger people would never physically buy a single. Now it is easier, cheaper and quicker to get the music you want. I never by cds anymore now, one because i am no good with them, i would easily scartch them and not put them in the correct case. Second because if i hear a song that i like i need to buy it instantly, not because i cant wait, but because i will forget the name of the song. So having I-Tunes i can keep it all organised and create my own playlist in a matter of seconds.

Another interesting thing when talking to my family is that my uncle and auntie were so against the downloading music. They like listening to the tapes, mainly i think for the sentimental value as while they were trying to record the chart song they would get someone talking over it. But if you think in a life time how much it has changed from vinyl, cd to download where can the future go?

Change of music industry due to internet.

"And I absolutely listen to more music than I used to," says the 23-year-old. "I pretty much have music playing all the time. It's because I can access so much of it, however I want."

The music industry has a new Internet problem. A decade ago, the major record labels began to worry about online piracy, in which people illegally swapped music over peer-to-peer networks like Napster (BBY) and later LimeWire. Partly in response to the piracy threat and partly due to sliding CD sales, music companies began to experiment with licensing their records to new online services.

sites allow music fans to spend much less money than in the past. "Most of this is substitutional. People go to [the Web] instead of buying records," says Jay Rosenthal, senior vice-president and general counsel for the National Music Publisher.
The new world of music looks very different from the old. With the new Web, services' listeners don't put CDs into a stereo or download tunes to their iPod. Instead, their music sits on a server somewhere else, waiting to be played from a computer or any other Net-connected device

Tuesday, 18 May 2010

What has been the impact of the internet on media production?

The biggest industry that has been impacted by the emergence of the new media and interenet.

It has taken the advantage of digital technology and better respond of changing to the consumers taste.

The traditional high cost of content;
- the role of content ownship
- distribution
- sacarcity of distribution outlets

Aol, microsoft, music and to take advantage of this vacum to agressively build the process for the marketing, distrubition, retailing music online.

The major lables
- universal
- sony bmg
- emi
- warner brothers
- virgin records

Digital transition continued with computers as a reproduction device.

started with cds and make the unplayble on computers.

Internet has increased all over the world.

It was estimated that by october 2000, napsters software was installed on 30 % of all pc worldwide, and it continued to grow. In february 2001 napster has 26.4 million users worldwide. Some researches showed that the average users in March '01 was spending time using Napster then browsing any music retaled web site.

June '01, napster shut down. Moreover it agreed tompay 26 million to creators and music owners for the lapsed period. In september '02 napster declared bankcrupt.
Napster is striving to become respectable subscription service legal distribution.

Napster case showed several issues to conside by major players.

Internet file sharing is an inevitable fact and a rapidly increasing trend

People enjoy to trade music and to download favourite songs at zero cost.

People prefer to download individual songs, not entire albums.

People on searching for popular music but also music that is diffcult to obtain in offline music stores ( for example older song and regional songs)

digital music industry is not immune to theft within recording companies( for instance some songs were released through napster months prior to the commercial release such as metallica "i disappear"

cd sales went down.

In order to be succesful online distribution their catalogues have to hold music from 5 distributions plus many independance ones.

Beginning of pirate radio - Radio Caroline.

With Caroline as the catalyst and its audience of tens of millions, new music and youth fashion accelerated at astonishing speed and hundreds of new bands achieved massive and sometimes lasting success.

From the day that Caroline appeared the UK government made threatening noises but no serious action was taken. Now there were several independent broadcasters sending programmes into the UK and twenty million people were listening. Further stations were rumoured to be in preparation and for the government things were getting out of hand. It was a delicate matter trying to legislate against a pastime which was providing a third of the population with the best fun they had enjoyed in a long time.
Grumbling about unauthorised use of radio frequencies and the vague potential for cross channel interference cut no ice with the offshore radio listeners who perceived the government and the BBC to be grumpy killjoys. Legislating against the pirates was a vote loser and for some time there was a stand off where the authorities made dire threats but did nothing. As famous Radio London DJ Dave Cash recalled many years later, 'they could not act against us for the reasons stated. They needed something heavy like drugs or murder – we gave them murder'.

In a fit of fury Calvert, who was known to be a violent and irrational person, burst into Smedley's home and hurled a heavy stone ornament at him. He also claimed to be armed with a tear gas pistol. Smedley took up his shot gun and killed Calvert. The image of the offshore stations as jolly buccaneers using spare radio channels to provide popular free entertainment was irrevocably shattered. Now the government could portray them as battling, murdering gangsters and now that the Labour Government were secure in power for five full years, losing votes was no longer an issue. It was proposed to silence the pirates using The Marine etc. Broadcasting Offences Act, which would deprive the stations of staff, supplies and most importantly of revenue.
No more was heard about new stations being planned. Those on air began strident campaigns against the proposed law. Having previously embraced the term 'pirate radio' they now wished to be known as free radio stations. Most outspoken on the subject of freedom of the individual against the system was Radio Caroline.

As the days of 1967 ticked away, while the music and happy DJ banter still flowed from the marine transmitters all were aware that the good days were drawing to a close. There was speculation as to how many stations would or could continue in the face of the new law. It was generally thought that the smaller stations would fail but that the major players, London and Caroline, would survive.

Monday, 17 May 2010

Long tail notes

Top 50 songs are not being made.

People who would be interested in Advertisment on tele are turning of the television and switching on the internet.

Itunes killed the radio star.

Changing where to acess information

Modern day consumer picks what he likes not worried if it isnt mainstream.

Free time is on internet only watches two hours of tele.

Choice is what has changed people they have access to it all.

TV shows where more popular in the 80s as there was less choice
interent is a niche markets
"one size fits all" - is dying out it is more everyone finds there own part

Broadcasting - sheepding - following each other.

Most music, films etc are not hits however millions do watch/listen

Niche market find niche audience is a force to be reckoned with.

Internet is absorbing all products becoming broadcaster and theatre.

The invisble market has turned visble.

Digitial distrubtion.

Consumers look at everything.

If you make something someone will consume it.

98 percent everthing sells at least once.

Only a few slots, so play what will sell. but more slots will play variety.

Hits are great but niche are better.

Small sales- but add to the same as mainstream.

No store could hold as many hits than the internet.

Googlem, ebay where long tail applies. Public add to the tail.

What happens when everything comes availiable to everyone.

We can buy branded or unbranded we can become mini consumers.

Sunday, 16 May 2010